Pilot Magazine UKGA

About You

Log In Register UKGA membership

Flight planning

Flight planning New flightplan NOTAM map LARS map & NOTAMs Danger area, mil. & TRA activations Weather map GPS route download Find waypoints Your waypoints New waypoint

Forums

Forums Currently discussing "NOTAM Map"

History

Tips

Other items

Articles Events Links News Surveys Tips Other users Feedback UKGA membership About UKGA

Tips

Reducing visibility ahead. I was taught this when training to become an Army Helicopter Pilot in the mid 80's "Whites alright, Grey OK? Black turn back"

Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Malcolm Cook

Leaving the Master switch on

Easy to do, but leave the beacon on, always. It can stand the jolt of the start sequence. As you leave the aircraft, a quick glance tells you the electrics are off, no flashing beacon.

Malcolm Cook likes this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Neil Murgatroyd

Be scared of crashing

I am a student, doing my microlight 3-axis on a C-42 Ikarus.

The first ground school lesson I had, my instuructor gave me a variation on the old joke "I'm not scared of flying, I'm scared of crashing"

He said "I'm not here to teach you how to fly, I'm here to teach you how not to plummet!"

So far, so good!!

2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by James Iball

Bugs in residence

SIMPLE TIP OF THE DAY!

Now summer is here, those cheeky little bugs like to take up residence in the pitot head.

REMEMBER....A blocked static port during descent will cause your ASI to over-read............EEEK....look out, your aircraft could be nearer stall speed than you think!

5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Linda Wheeler

Quote from a wartime flying instructor:-

Flying is safe so long as you remember that it is dangerous!

2 others like this.
Login to say you like this

LANDING MADE EASY

When you have arrived near TOUCHDOWN point

Don't let the aircraft SLAM into the ground & bouncing

Try to hold the aircraft OFF thE ground as long as possible by GENTLY pulling the nose upwards.

When the wings have COMPETELY stopped giving lift

Your aircraft will settle gently onto the main gear

This works for nose wheels and tail draggers

2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by roger bell

Low flying

If you want to low fly there are 2 rules.

1. Fly towards the sun. People on the ground may not hear you approaching and by the time they hear or see you they will be looking towards the sun and not able to see your registration.

2. Only low fly over an area once.

Iain

4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Iain Mackay

During climbs, when altimeter at 12'o'clock, lower nose or do clearing turn. When altimeter at 6'o'clock, check engine T's & P's

3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Sean Donno

Useless things in aviation

My instructor used to like saying

"Useless things in aviation:

* Runway (behind you)
* Fuel (in the bowser)
* Maps (in the clubroom)
* Weather forecast, NOTAMs, etc (unread)
* Diversions (not planned)"

I'm sure there were more. Can anyone add to this?

Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Stuart Ord

When you do a "FREDA", don't forget the pilot and passengers - I add an "S" for Sip & Sugar". Liquids and food are essential to keep attention going!

4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Roger Gregory

On Cockpit Clocks

SSDR microlights don't usualy have such a clock, don't even have a dash board some times

Just making a fiberglass 'T' shaped board to hold essential instruments and having a spare corner on the board and a spare Christmas gift of a 30mm white faced wrist watch I thought that I would fit that. Allways have a problem looking at the time of take off and any other time whilst in the air. On top of this the watch keeps spot on tme and never needs adjusting, winding etc.

Login to say you like this
Tip provided by H.J.Mayer

Check Weather & NOTAMs together

BLACK & WHITE

CHAS & DAVE

WEATHER & NOTAMS

Get into the habit of checking Weather & NOTAMs together because one isn't any good without the other. No point in checking Wx for an airfield that isn't available or planning to do a let down on an aid which is unservicable.

5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by ask captainjon

Perform your run up checks every time as if you were a test pilot using that engine for the very first time.

4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Lewis Anderson

Max drift & crosswind calculations

You probably already know this one, as it's very standard, but if not;

Max drift (ie with a direct 90 deg crosswind) = wind speed x 60 / KTAS ie half @ 120, 2/3 @ 90, 0.6 @ 100 etc

Then actual drift by rule of sixths;

max drift = say 15 deg, and wind angle = 30 deg off nose, then drift = 15 x 30/60 or 3/6 = 1/2 = 7.5 deg (call it 7 or 8 - your heading keeping won't be that good!

Accurate enough, but you can finesse it a bit by calling 45 deg 0.7, and 60 deg 0.9

It's a good idea to note the forecast max drift at cruise speed on your chart (and again at holding speed if you're doing instrument stuff), and headings for each leg can then be easily worked out by the sixths rule.

2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Bob Hodgson

Wondering how high the cloud base is? This is the technique I regularly teach to my students... It works!

Temperature - dew point multiplied by 400.

E.g. temp 15°C - dew point 11°C = 4 (i.e the difference)

4 x 400 = 1600

The cloud base is likely to be at 1600ft.

Try it out!

14 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Richard A Smith

Airfield windsocks can give very useful information if you look at them! Make them part of your taxy checks.

5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by ask captainjon

Calculating rate of descent for glidepath

Ref the groundspeed on approach tip: Divide your groundspeed by 2 and add a zero. ie 70kts / 2 = 35, add the 0 = 350 your rate of descent for a 3° glidepath.

6 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Joseph Platt

Know Your Fuel Drains

Are you sure that you know all the fuel drains in your aircraft where you should sample fuel from before every flight ?

Some aircraft also have drain points which are at the lowest part of the fuel system, as well as the tanks.

Peter Cook likes this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Keith Hallam

GPS and Avoiding Airspace Busts

You shouldn't need a GPS to avoid busting airspace, but with the availabilty of cheap GPSs, there really is no excuse to be caught out.

Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Keith Hallam

Cluttering the Airwaves

Don't spend too much time with friendly chatter to the tower.

Keep communication concise.

This will allow others getting their (sometimes critical) call in.

5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Keith Hallam

Large Circuits

Pilots performing large slow circuits are:

a) a risk to themselves as there is no way they would reach the runway if there was an engine failure, and

b) because everyone in the circuit then have to follow, causing some faster aircraft to abort the circuit and take avoiding action.

10 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Keith Hallam

Straight in Approaches

In busy circuits, pilots requesting straight in approaches can be a real pain, upsetting those joining overhead or already in the circuit. Try to use the standard join whenever you can.

15 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Keith Hallam

Crtical Weight and Balance Calculations

Don't assume that you can have one or two passengers and have the aircraft in balance in a four seat aircraft, without extra ballast.

In my Trinidad with two in the front and full fuel, the aircraft would be out of the balance limits, without loading in the baggage compartment or rear seats.

How many of you are not doing weight and balance calculations because you don't have many people in the plane, so you are obviously less than MTWA ? Again, you can be well under MTWA, but hugely out of balance. Be warned !

3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Keith Hallam

Pre-take off check: ATPL!

Pre-take off check

- Approach

- Transponder

- Lights

- Pitot heat

3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Mark Bellamy

When lined up on the runway make sure the DI is properly aligned with the compass before take off.

5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by ask captainjon

When "unsure of a suitable heading" to your destination airfield using the qte/qdm comms calls are useful for a good heading to take.

QTE - them to me.

QDM - me to them.

4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by paul bellingham

Don't become complacent

Be patient when planning a flight be a long or short distance. Be sure, even if you think its trivial and don't become complacent.

4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Kev Garton

Having trouble landing? Do a night rating. You will aquire a technique that many airline pilots use and works every time. I had a stroke in 2007, left blind in one eye and have litle visual perception of distance or height but still continue flying. OK. with only a restricted NPPL(A) but it was one of the best aviation investments I ever made.

2 others like this.
Login to say you like this

Re Roger Piper's mnemonic/acronym - I use SWATCH when lined up and cleared for take-off. A little less graphic, I know, but -

SW - Stopwatch set running; makes calculating take-off time time easy as I invaribly forget to log it.

A - Altimeter set to QNH/QFE as applicable.

T - T's and P's checked, transponder ON.

CH - Compass heading matching DI setting and runway numbers.

I'm sure there are many other variations.......

PS - Mentioning QNH/QFE reminds me that my first Instructor, Ray Webb, was fond of using QNR. Give in? It stands for 'Quick Nip Round'....

3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Mark Jones

Quick and dirty (dead reconning) direction finder.

If you have need of an impromtu divert off your planned track, here's a little tip given to me by a 747 pilot.

Draw a line on a map, then apply the direction to a clock face and multilpy X 30.

Examples:

direction of 2 O'Clock * 30 = 60 (degrees).

direction of 6 O'clock * 30 = 180 (degrees).

direction of 12 o' clock * 30 = 360 (degrees)

and so on. easypeasy. It got me through the Nav test!

G

19 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Gail Stevens

If you aircraft has 2 x VHF radios or 2 x Nav equipment turn them ALL ON after start even if you only ever use 'VHF Box 1'. I have seen many a polot have problems with Box 1 and then try transmitting on 'Box 2' with it turned OFF. If it's fitted in your aircraft have it switched ON or Standby, one day it will be very useful.

7 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Ash Bourne

Landing is take-off backwards

For students struggling with their landing technique review the take off:

Building speed, raising nose-wheel and balancing on the mains, then after the plane takes off holding it in ground effect for moment to allow speed to increase before climbing.

Now just do it backwards - hold in ground effect until the speed reduces, lower down to balance on the mains, let the nosewheel sink and then reduce speed. Easy!

9 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Julian Midda

For Aeros Squawk 7004

Tip

For Aeros Squawk 7004

Five minutes before you start aeros set squawk to 7004. Also inform anyone you are getting service from what area and height range you are operating in. Also call when complete and reset squawk.

Mike Ellis likes this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Richard Piper
Be aware of wake turbulance when departing.

A light crosswind of about 2-4 knots may hold the upwind vortex of a heavy aircraft in place at the runway where it was created. Any crosswind greater than 5 knots will more likely break up the wake vortex.

In zero crosswind conditions the vortex from the left wing will move to the lef, and the vortex from the right wing will move to the right.

3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Darren O'Hara
Easier than colour of signs to tell motorway from A road -- only motorways have hard shoulders separated by solid white line.
5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by John Everton
Seeing the latest tip on determing cloud base reminds me of a much simpler way:

(temp - dewpoint) x 400

example: temp 15 deg, DP 10 deg Diff:5X400=2000'

16 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Peter Brown
Pre Takeoff Check:

Lights, Camera, Action

Strobes (Lights)
Transponder (Camera)
Mixture Rich (Action

3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by George H
Rather than applying carb heat for a few seconds before takoff (a few seconds may not be long enough for an O-200) I tend to do the following:

After doing your power checks at the hold point, return carb heat to hot and complete the rest of your cockpit checks. One of the last checks is to check that carb heat is cold. Set carb heat to cold at this point. You can now be sure that there is no ice in the induction system.

2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
To everyone out there especially students, if you get the opportunity go to CAA Safety brief. They provide information and film of accidents which could save your life. The CAA officer will also stamp your log book to say you attended, also lots of free goodies.
9 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Mike Fawdrey
S.H.I.T. List

A bit like blues, reds, greens on finals, when lining up prior to take off roll I check:

Strobes - on

Heading - check DI against compass (when stopped turning), this also confirms correct runway

Instruments - check t&p's good to go still

Transponder - on (from standby)

14 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Richard Piper
Birds:- only 1% of reported birdstrikes occur above 2500 ft (unless your the pilot of a jet at 37000 that struck a vulture off africa!)

When flying along the coast, be aware birds use the coastline for navigation too. Consider flying above 2500 ft when flying along coasts particulary during July and August when young birds are at their peak trying to fly!

All birdstrikes are reportable!

4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Alan Stewart
T's and P's ? Here's all the P's

"Proper Planning and Preparation Prevents Poor Performance."

J. Green

3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by john green
When taxiing, it's too easy to do it it on the brakes ! If I have an aircraft equipped with toe brakes ( as most Cessna & Pipers do ) I always bring my feet down, leaving my toes only pressing the bottom of the pedals to do the necessary turning.
3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Didier Keller
Whenever landing on a grass runway and you get heavey rain whilst in the approach, try putting much less power in during your landing as the brakes struggle to grip with the wet grass!
6 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Sam Leonard
If God had intended man to fly - He would have given him more money
22 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Julian Midda
Always check out the plane as if you were thinking of buying it
10 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Richard Pearce
Never under estimate the extent to which talking can be a distraction. Don't focus your attention too much on a conversation in the cockpit which is not related to the operation of the flight!
8 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Josh Wilson
The heading correction due to a cross wind can be estimated by:

degreesXwind (modulo 90) times windspeed divided by IAS.

Given a wind speed of 30 knots which is 15 degrees off track (whether from behind or from infront) and an IAS of 90 knots you get a heading correction of 5 degrees (and the computer says you need 5). For a wind 30 deg off heading you need 10 degs and you get 10. For 60 degrees need 17 but it gives 20, and then at 75 if goes 20 which is right.

It is surprisingly its close to the correct heading correction all the way round and for speeds 60-120 knots. So this might be good for calculating the heading for an alternate say. I've never seen it before but I can't believe it isn't out there

2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by John Mayhew
Every now and then in flight when theres nothing much going on check all the instruments along with your basic FREDA checks just to make sure that absolutely everything is ok. It might just show something.
2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Matthew Senior
When leaving your aircraft it is always possible to "overlook" the fact that you may have left the battery master switch in the ON position. I have seen this happen a couple of times at airfields!

As you walk past your aircraft on the way back to the clubhouse get into the habit of quickly "flicking" the stall warner vane up - If you hear the sound of the stall warner from the cockpit you know that you have left the battery master switch on. This wouldn't of course work with a Cessna 172 or similar, so instead, leave your beacon switch permanently ON. You will then have a visual clue that the master switch has been left on.

8 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Chris Hunter

Gauge progress relative to NDBs.

Gauge progress relative to NDBs.

Even if not tracking an NDB, they can be useful in gauging relative position whilst enroute. This requires a bit of thought and care, but is useful, I find.

Simply tune the ADF to a nearby NDB (and ident it, of course), and then watch the rate at which the needle moves. If you are aware of where the NDB is, you can gauge your progress according to the needle movement rate.

This is NOT to be used for position fixing (it is a 'non-precision' technique) - but, with practice can provide an additional useful input to your situational awareness.

Lewis Anderson likes this.
Login to say you like this
If you're having trouble mastering the dark art of landing, ask your instructor to land it while you video it from the left-hand seat. (Even a digital stills camera will do if it has a video function.) Then put that on your PC or TV and watch it continually before your next lesson.

It's a fantastic way to get the 'picture' fixed in your brain, and it lets you isolate the bits that you find most difficult and focus on them. Plus it's a heck of a lot cheaper than doing it for real.

Laura Raison likes this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Max Drift

If you have two radios, call for taxi on one, mid-way through ATC's instructions switch to the other, and listen to the rest of the instructions, then do the readback on the other. You have now transmitted and listened on both boxes and know they both work or not.

3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by John Rowles
When descending deadside at a new airfield have a look at where there is to go in the event of an EFATO on departure.
10 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Tom Brearley
Tracking an NDB without touching the RBI card on the ADF:

Most instructors wil teach the old method of rotating the RBI card to find your radial on an NDB. This method can leave you for dead in an approach.

I must admit I did'nt invent this, and it'd be wrong of me to say that i did, but here goes.

Firstly some general theory. Divide the NDB into 4 imaginary sections, just like the quadrantal rule. first quater, i.e from 000-090 being + 090-180 being - 180-270 being - 270-360 being +

1. Firstly compare your position and heading relative to the

radial you want.

Lets say for argument's sake I am approaching the NDB on the 270 and I actually want the 000 radial or the 180 track to the NDB. so comparing the position to the bearing I know for sure I have to turn left. Lets assume I take up the heading of 200 (i wouldn't really, but just for simplicity).

2. Now compare the desired track to your heading.

DTK = 180

HDG=200 +

RBI= -20 in this case the RBI should read 160 to tell you that you have reached the 180 radial.

Hope this helps

GORDON PURVIS likes this.
Login to say you like this
When carrying out a FREDA check don't just pull carb heat and then return after 10 secs,it acheives nothing as it is not on long enough to melt any ice.

Pull carb heat at first item,

carry out Fuel,Radio,engine Ts & Ps, DI check, Altimeter check,

restore carb heat last

11 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Mike Fawdrey
If you are unsure whether the road below is M-way or A road dual carriageway, simple!

M way signs are blue

A road signs are green

Filipe Dias likes this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Mike Fawdrey
A very simple rule of thumb to find cross wind or drift without doing sums (can't fly and do sums at the same time) is to use the face of your watch. 15 minutes past is a quarter of an hour, 30 minutes is a half etc.

So if the wind is:

15 deg off use a quarter of it as cross wind
30 deg off is a half
45 deg off is three quarters
60 deg off use the whole.

This works for cross wind, drift (calculate the maximum drift for your TAS and apply the RoT) and for ground speed adjustment.

Once you have worked out the principle in your head, flight without formulae is yours!

5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by John Brady
When manouvreing in tight corners, when not sure whether you are clear of an obstruction don't be afraid to ask for help, or stop and check even if you have to shut down. Loss of face is better than loss of bank balance. It is too late when 2 a/c are damaged
2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Mike Fawdrey
TIPS especially in the early days

NEVER EVER let someone convince you that the fuel's ok without dipping or otherwise checking the tanks yourself. If you run out of fuel it is YOUR LIFE.

If you are unhappy with an a/c for whatever reason sort it whilst on the ground

10 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Mike Fawdrey
Tip: Rate of descent for 3 degree glideslope

For a 3 degree glideslope a descent of 300ft/nm is required. However there is no instrument in the cockpit to easily measure ft/nm.

If we know the headwind we can use the VSI and here's how:

1. Calculate your ground speed (GS) on approach.

GS = IAS - headwind speed

2. Multiply this by 5 and this gives your required rate of descent.

ROD = 5 x GS (ft/min)

eg.

Headwind = 10 kts

IAS = 60 kts

GS = 60 - 10 = 50 kts

ROD = 5 x 50 = 250 ft/min

3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Kevin Stewart
Carb Ice -- En-route and Pre-Landing checks.

I.F.R.E.D.A.I --- I = Ice ON Carb Heat to Hot, go through the remainder of the checks and last of all I = Ice OFF Carb Heat to Cold.

This gives the heater time to eliminate any ice or draw your attention to any icing which may exist, as opposed to a 'Quick' Heat 'On' and 'Off' as the first item on the check list.

Same with the Pre-landing checks--

I.B.U.M.P.F.I

At first I = Ice -- On Carb Heat to Hot -- remainder of checks carried out -- Last item I -- Ice Carb Heat Cold (if required some aircraft keep it on below certain RPM).

In my check list for the Pup it states 15 secs Carb heat applied for the carb heat ground check.

Not a quick On -Off --- 'See if it's working' type check.

Another Carb Ice / Fog warning tip.

Ambient Temperature and Due point Temperature -- close together --- Beware !!!!!

2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
The golden rule of bush-flying:

If you are exploring a valley, always start from the top down, as many aviators have found themselves facing a valley wall that is climbing at a faster rate than their aircraft can manage. Instinct is to try and pull out of it, but this normally results in a stall followed by a spin. If you do find yourself facing a valley wall, simply fly as slowly as possible onto the area ahead of you and you stand a far better chance of survival than trying to pull out in a turn.

Sobering stuff, but it would surprise you the number of pilots, particularly in Alaska who have lost their lives without knowing this simple advice.

4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Matthew Douglas
Airspeed, altitude or brains: two are always needed to successfully complete the flight (Aviationmaxim)
3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Jerzy Scibor
Noticed how hard it is to get a good look at your watch with heavier winter clothing on for T/0 times and ETA etc? Why not wind up that old PA28 clock on the panel, it winds clockwise, ratchets the other way. Hands are changed by pulling the knob out, adjusting, then pushing back in.

If it says "quartz" you fly much more modern planes than me, and they probably keep excellent time.

Back up with an occasional glance at your own in a quiet moment just in case just to check it's keeping time.

James Kilford likes this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Dave Hall
To get a fairly good estimate of how high you should be for your lateral distance from the landing threshold take the nautical miles displacement and multiply by 3. This will give you your required height in hundreds of feet assuming a 3° glideslope.

ie., 12 miles to run = 36 x100 = 3,600 feet AAL.

10 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Mark Charlwood
If your DI has a heading bug, set the wind direction on it. Then you can quickly find out the wind direction without bothering ATC.
2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Anthony Shreeve
Simple yet effective: Aviate, Navigate, Communicate
4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Anthony Shreeve

"Turn to new heading" estimate

To quickly work out a "turn to new heading" estimate, check where you are now in relation to a Northerly orientated map (ie: turn it the right way up) and then look at where you need to be. Visualise this as the time on a clock face, multiply by 3, then add a zero.

eg: Fly from Manchester to Birmingham - your current position is overhead Stafford, Your flight is diverted to East Midlands. What heading do you take up?

Turn map right way up - East Midlands is in the 3 O'clock position so, 3 X 3 =9 New heading = 090

Diverted to Liverpool - Liverpool lies about 11 O'clock so, 11 X 3 = 33 new heading 330 deg

6 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Eric Mole

Cattle wind

.. needing wind direction in remote places when you have very little reference, it helps to note that if there is cattle in the field near your chosen put down they will have their butts to the wind. So you'll want to be looking in their eyes when step out...you can Ripley that if you dare.
7 others like this.
Login to say you like this

Check the tanks Visually

Always check the fuel tanks yourself (visually!) - This is not just for student pilots, but I had a case 4 yrs ago, it was just a few weeks after i passed by Skill test and embarked on a short trip with my father-in law from Cranfield to Peterborough. On take -off, noticed both gauges reading erm...pretty empty.. waited until i levelled off and started to panic. Made a precautionary landing at Little Staughton and yes, you guessed it, almost empty. No way would I have reached Peterborough.

Turned out that when i booked the aircraft out, i was told "It's had an hour out of full tanks" - It turns out the aircraft had been out twice after that and not recorded in the log book - So, DONT take anybody's word for it. Always CHECK.
7 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Pete Bailey

Some useful ballpark methods...

Some useful ballpark methods when flying common trainers:

Max wind drift = 2/3 of wind speed, then eyeball the cross-wind components by projecting on the map track.
(e.g. wind 30kts -> max correction angle is 20deg)

Minutes to waypoint = 2/3 of nm (e.g. 40nm -> 27min)

Both rules are calibrated for 90kts and are still good around this value. The latter in particular, needs to be adjusted for ground speed if far from this figure. I use a simple linear rule: if speed is 10% above 90 then decrease time and angle by 10%. For slower I increase time angle in the same way.

Wind forecasts are not that accurate so there's little point in being too accurate in your calculations. However keep in mind that these rules become less accurate as wind speed or distance increases or speed decreases.
2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Papa Tango

Air Safety Circulars


Primarily for Students, but equally applicable for licensed pilots.

Check out the AIS AIC updates regularly as they do change, this is especially relevant to students who are about to take their exams, for example in the latest (2002) edition of Thoms the following have already changed.

AIC 12/1997(Pink 134) is now 39/2002 (Pink 30)
AIC 15/1999 (Pink 186) is now 87/2002 (Pink 39)
AIC 104/1998 (Pink 176) is now 93/2002 (Pink 8)
AIC 12/1996 (Pink 120) is now 67/2002 (Pink 36)

so make sure you revise the correct information.

This is just an example of the changes in the Pink section, which is one of five sections.

2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by David May

Estimating Cloudbase

To estimate the cloudbase the following day, take the maximum daytime temperature from the tv forecast and subtract it from the overnight minimum temperature and multiply by 400. E.g. 20 - 12 = 8 degrees, 8 times 400 = a cloudbase of 3200 feet. You will find it pretty accurate!
5 others like this.
Login to say you like this

Think Ahead

(most relevant for Student Pilots)

Don't ever let the plane get somewhere that your mind didn't get to 5 minutes earlier!
6 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Stuart Oram

Final Approach wind, Method Two: The Rule of 6


10° of difference between Runway direction and wind = 1/6th
20° of difference between Runway direction and wind = 1/3rd
30° of difference between Runway direction and wind = 1/2
40° of difference between Runway direction and wind = 2/3rd
50° of difference between Runway direction and wind = 5/6th
60° of difference between Runway direction and wind = 6/6th

The fractions are what amount of the wind is a cross wind....so, if it is a 20kt wind, with 20° of difference, it is 2/6th = 1/3, which is a bit under 7kts......
4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Mark Charlwood
One top tip for travelling abroad.... If you stop at the larger airfields, always ask at the information desk which hotels are classed as "Crew Stopover" hotels, as they usually will extend the crew discount to GA pilots. This can be as much as 40% in places like Porto, Gerona, Jerez etc.
3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Simon Barlow
To assess the wind vector from a isobar weather chart read off the difference in pressure over a distance of 150nm then multiply this by 5 to estimate the speed. The wind will blow in a direction parallel to the isobar lines with the low pressure on the left of the air flow.

This method can be used to assess the afternoon wind speed and direction from the predictive isobar chart on the top right of the mornings Met Form 215
4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

Daytime Wind Estimation

To estimate the daytime 2000' wind from the surface wind add 30° to the direction and multiply the speed by 2 and subtract 10%

e.g. surface wind = 270°/12kts gives 2000' wind of 300°/23kts (approx)
4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

To fly, or not to fly...

When considering you Fly/No-Fly decision remember.....

"It is better to be down on the ground wishing you were up in the air, than it is to be up in the air wishing you were down on the ground!"
6 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

DI Check

When you have aligned the Direction Indicator (DI) with the magnetic compass release the pressure on the adjuster and turn the knurled end clockwise then anti-clockwise. This checks that the DI has not become stuck during the adjustment and can move freely.
Andrew McGeechan likes this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

Pre-start altimeter check

During internal pre-start checks set the altimeter to read the altitude of the airfield above sea level by adjusting the sub-scale. Now check the sub-scale reading against the known QNH. This gives an extra check that the altimeter is working correctly.
Publio mangadza likes this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

Forecasting Cloud Height

A packet of dry-air cools at a standard rate of approximately 3 degrees per 1000’; this is called the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DARL)

The dew-point temperature decreases with increasing height at approximately 0.5° per 1000’

These two decreasing temperatures converge at a rate of approximately 2.5° per 1000’

Divide the difference between the dry temperature and dew-point temperature by 2.5 and multiply the result by 1000 and this will give an approximate height above ground level (AGL) at which to expect the cloud base that day.

e.g. Dry/Dew-point of 15°/10° = 5° / 2.5 x 1000' = 2000’

4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

Altitude Reporting

Reporting your altitude when below the transition altitude to an ATSU or when giving blind calls - avoid using terms like "…on the QNH" but instead include your actual altimeter pressure sub-scale reading, so that any error from different altitude reports due to different pressure settings may be more easily spotted and possible confliction avoided.

e.g.

"G-ABCD is at 2500ft on 998mb"
5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

Altitude vs TAS

As your altitude increases so does the difference between indicated & true airspeed due to the decreasing density of the air. The relationship may be calculated from the following ready-reckoner:

At 5000' TAS = IAS + 9% (3 squared) %
At 10,000' TAS = IAS + 16% (4 squared) %
At 15,000' TAS = IAS + 25% (5 squared) %
At 20,000' TAS = IAS + 36% (6 squared) %
At 25,000' TAS = IAS + 49% (7 squared) %
At 30,000' TAS = IAS + 64% (8 Squared) %
5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

'D' is for...

Avoid any un-neccesary excursions off-track ! Remember the 'D' in FREDA is DI & Compass checks !

Happy Landings !

Also relevant for trainee pilots approaching circuits; ensure you realign your DI and compass as part of your rejoin checks - Ed
2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Rupert Hamblin

Head/Tail Winds & Groundspeed

To work out a head/tail wind & groundspeed on a diversion. Work out the wind angle off the beam from your heading (e.g. if your heading is 070deg the beam is 70deg + 90deg (beam)= 160deg).

Now if the wind is 120/15, use the clock face to assess the proportion of head/tail wind using the angle off beam i.e. 160(beam) - 120(wind) = 40 deg = 2/3 the clock face so 2/3 x 15kts = 10kts. The headwind is 10kts.

Groundspeed

If your TAS in the cruise is 100 kts then the groundspeed will be TAS - headwind = 90kts. From this figure timings on the diversion leg may be accurately calculated.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

Wind Drift Calculation

To calculate a wind drift heading correction to maintain a required track

Max Drift (kts)=Wind Speed (kts) x 60/TAS

e.g. for 100kts cruise Max drift = Windspeed x 0.6

Then use the clockface method to assess the required heading correction

e.g. if the required track is 250deg and the wind is 280/20 max drift = 0.6 x 20 = 12kts and 280deg - 250 deg = 30 deg or half way round the clock face so you need to turn into wind by half of 12 or 6deg therefore 250 + 6 = 256deg heading should be steered for a 250deg track
2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew

Final Approach Crosswind

To calculate the crosswind on final approach, take the difference between the runway QDM and the wind direction, and then use a clock face to work out the proportion of wind speed which is blowing across the runway.

e.g. 240/15 landing on R26 gives 20° difference. The 20 minute point on a watch face is a third of the way round the hour, so the cross wind blowing is one third of 15kts = 5kts crosswind

e.g. 215/12 landing on R26 gives 45° difference. The 45 minute point on a watch face is three quarters of the way round the hour, so the cross wind blowing is three quarters of 12kts = 9kts crosswind.
4 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Andrew
Avoid embarrassment among your tailwheel-flying mates by calling any ground loops you do "lateral excursions". Easy!
2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by James Kilford
Before rolling on take off, apply carb heat for 10 secs. Will reduce the risk of carb ice build up from ground running at low powers whilst starting up/doing checks and taxiing.
5 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by Steve Young
On the approach to most airfields that have a 3 degree glideslope a good rule of thumb is to multiply your groundspeed by 5.

Eg, groundspeed is 70 knots on the approach. 70 x 5 = 350

Rate of descent required to maintain 3 degrees of descent is 350 feet per minute.
3 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by David Tidwell

Maximum-rate descents

Maximum-rate descents are useful for getting down quickly if you have an in-flight emergency. If you're not current with the procedure, you should be. Find out about the practice for maximum rate descents in your aircraft. Bear in mind that it's quite a stressful maneouvre for the plane.
2 others like this.
Login to say you like this
Tip provided by James Kilford

Contribute to UKGA

Do you have a tip, article or other information you wish to publish?
Send it to us!

Register with UKGA

Registration is quick and easy, and FREE!

Registered users received the following benefits:

  • Remembers "Favourites" Aerodromes
  • Automatic email of new Notams (if desired)
  • Automatic email of relevant events
  • Log Book
  • ... and more!

Click here to register NOW

About You

Log In Register UKGA membership

Airfields

Interactive airfield map Search by name Search by postcode Search by location Fuel prices Pilot reviews Latest
(No favourites selected)

Flight planning

Flight planning New flightplan NOTAM map LARS map & NOTAMs Danger area, mil. & TRA activations Weather map GPS route download Find waypoints Your waypoints New waypoint

Forums

Forums Currently discussing "NOTAM Map"

History

Tips

Other items

Articles Events Links News Surveys Tips Other users Feedback UKGA membership About UKGA